Originally posted by: catfishbrad on 10/14/2005 6:17:38 PM
Depending on where you live, the definition of the term "crankbait" will vary drastically. For the purposes of this article, we will consider a crankbait to be any hard bodied lure that naturally produces action when retrieved. Crankbaits can come with or without lips, just so long as they have that recognizable swimming wiggle when you're pulling them through the water.
Types of Crankbaits
Crankbaits can be split into multiple sub-categories based on their use, action, and physical appearance. Unfortunately, as with many fishing issues, there is some debate over how many sub-categories actually exist, and what they should be called. We're going to take some liberty here and say that there are only three (3) true types of crankbaits and they are floating/diving, lipless, and minnow. Here is a quick overview of each of these classifications:
Floating/Diving Crankbaits - (also known as "lipped") - These crankbaits are easily recognized by the presence of a diving lip, either carved into the body or attached to the nose of the lure. During a retrieve, this lip pushes sharply against the water causing the lure to dive downward and wiggle. Lipped crankbaits vary greatly in their buoyancy, meaning that they either naturally float or sink when they are at rest in the water. The highly buoyant (i.e. "floating") versions have a desire to stay on the surface of the water and will resist the crankbait's dive, causing it to run tail up/nose down during the retrieve. This body position shields the hooks from snags and causes it to make contact with underwater structures lip first. Additionally, the lure's natural desire to float will allow it to back up and away from underwater obstacles when you relax the tension on your line. This makes it an ideal lure for fishing in and around heavy cover. The neutral buoyant versions (i.e. "suspending" or "sinking") naturally sink to a specific depth and then dive down from there, resulting in a deeper dive. This makes it easier to keep the lure in deep water strike zones to generate bites.
Lipless Crankbaits - As the name implies, lipless crankbaits have no diving lip and rely on gravity to sink to their desired running depth. Unlike the lipped floating/diving crankbait which gets its swimming action primarily from the diving bill, lipless crankbaits rely on their slim, flat-sided body design and top-mounted line tie to produce the action. It should be noted, however, that the action produced by the lipless crankbait is a "vibrating" action and does not typically include the noticeable wobbling action produced by its lipped cousin. This vibrating action produces high-frequency sonic waves that are intended to replicate the waves emitted by a wounded baitfish. As a general rule, the faster the retrieve, the stronger the vibration. Because this lure doesn't have the drag associated with a diving lip, it is possible to retrieve it at very fast speeds. As a side note, metal "blade baits" exhibit the same characteristics as lipless crankbaits and are thus included in this category.
Minnow Crankbaits - The minnow crankbait ("Minnow") is an extremely versatile bait and has a seemingly unlimited number of uses. They can be cranked, twitched, trolled, suspended, or fished top-water to produce strikes. They typically have a long slender profile, tiny diving lip, and slow rolling swimming action. The diving lip is generally between 1/4 and 1/8 the size of the overall lure body and is not capable of running to deeper depths. Originally, the lip's primary purpose was to produce additional swimming action in the lure and allow it to skim along just under the surface. In recent years, many lure manufacturers have begun modifying the lip to run deeper and get the lure down into the strike zone of deep water predators. Many manufacturers also modify the body's buoyancy to create floating, slow-rising, and suspending versions. The suspending minnows are "neutrally buoyant" and can rest at a specific depth, allowing them to sit in and around cover. The slow rising versions are weighted in a manner that slows their ascent toward the surface during retrieve pauses. Because of this lure's long profile, it is very prone to hook snags and doesn't typically have the same dominant tail up body position of other lipped crankbaits. In fact, many anglers add weight to the tail of the minnow to give it a nose-up body position similar to that of a wounded bait fish.
There are hundreds of thousands of different crankbait designs, many of which combine the positive traits of different sub-categories to create an entirely different type of crankbait. Some of the more popular variations are the 'jointed', 'fat bodied', and 'count-down' models.
The jointed crankbait consists of two or more connected body segments that react with opposite movements during a retrieve, creating an exaggerate wiggle. This gives the lure the appearance of a fast moving bait fish, even when the lure is not traveling at great speeds. Another benefit of the jointed models is the creation of sound during a retrieve. As a properly designed jointed lure swims through the water, its two body segments make contact and produce an audible "click" that helps fish identify it's location. Many anglers also believe that a jointed crankbait produces better hookups than single-bodied versions. I haven't seen any evidence to support this claim, but it's worth pointing out.
Count-down crankbaits are weighted lures designed to sink deep and catch fish that other crankbaits can't reach. Good count-downs will come with a "sink rate" that tells the angler how fast the lure sinks under normal conditions (typically provided in feet per second). To fish it properly, an angler will begin counting seconds from the time the lure hits the water. When the appropriate number of seconds have passed, the angler will stop the descent and the lure will stop at the desired depth. Unfortunately, a count-down's sink rate will not always match the manufacturer's suggestion. Factors such as water clarity, currents, and line test will affect the sinking speed. Because of this, many anglers will spot test the bait prior to each use. To do this, they simply position their boat over a known depth and let the lure sink. They count how long it takes for the lure to reach the bottom and that tells them the sink rate.
The crankbait has more design variations and considerations and most other types of fishing tackle. It's action and effectiveness is drastically affected by everything from the shape of the body all the way down to the position of it's hooks. To create a truly effective crankbait, tackle makers must carefully consider all of the aspects that affect the lure and balance them into one successful design. Following is a list of the characteristics lure makers should consider when designing crankbaits (in no particular order):
Body Material - When selecting the material for the body of a crankbait, lure makers consider factors like water-resistance, buoyancy, cost, and shaping ability. Most commercial lures are made from injected plastic because it is cheap, water-resistant, consistently shaped, and easy to finish. This is unfortunate because wooden lures typically produce better action and buoyancy than plastics and are far more durable. Fortunately, there are still some manufacturers that use wooden bodies. These bodies are typically made from Jelutong, Sugar Pine, Balsa, Basswood, or Cedar. Of these woods, sugar pine, cedar, and jelutong are generally considered the best for lure making, with balsa and basswood coming in a close second.
Body Shape/Size - The shape and size of a crankbait affects its action, water displacement, profile, and overall ability to catch fish. Crankbait designers must take both the target species and the laws of physics into consideration when shaping a body. Well designed bodies will have a profile similar in shape and size to the target species' natural prey and will have consciously designed hydrodynamic properties. Without getting too technical (that occurs in another article), the hydrodynamic properties determine how the lure interacts with and travels through water. In a nutshell, curved body designs create gentle movement in the lure and sharp angles produce violent amplified action.
Body Weight - This trait is more appropriately called "buoyancy" or "specific gravity". It determines whether the lure will float, sink, or suspend in water. Without getting too mathematical, the buoyancy of a lure body can easily be calculated by dividing its density (in grams per cubic centimeter) by the density of pure water (one gram per cubic centimeter). Lures with a buoyancy greater than 1 will sink and lures with a buoyancy less than 1 will float. If a lure has a buoyancy equal to 1, it will suspend, meaning that it will remain at a specific depth without floating or sinking. As a point of reference, balsa wood has a buoyancy of 0.17, basswood has a buoyancy of 0.37, jelutong has a buoyancy of 0.46, sugar pine has a buoyancy of 0.36, and cedar has a buoyancy of 0.40. This means that balsa crankbaits will rise faster and will sit higher on the water's surface whereas sugar pine, jelutong, and cedar lures will have the more desirable slower ascent and will sit deeper on the water's surface. Of course, all of this can be modified by adding weights, hardware, and hooks to increase the lure's weight. Also, keep in mind that many woods will absorb water and lose buoyancy if they are not sealed properly or if the lure finish is damaged.
Lip Size/Shape - The shape of the lip affects the diving depth, the wiggle ('action'), and the lure's ability to safely bounce off underwater obstacles. The more surface area, the more water the lip will catch and the deeper it will run. One way that to think of this is to imagine the lip is a canoe paddle. If you try to paddle a canoe with a yardstick, you won't get very far. This is because the yardstick's skinny profile has very little surface area compared to the large canoe to push against the water. On the flip side, if you try to paddle the canoe with with a paddle, you will move very fast. This is because the paddle is wide and long and has more surface area - thus it can "displace" more of water. Now, if we bring this back to crankbait lips, we see that the lips behave in a similar fashion: skinny lips don't move as much water and thus don't dive as deep. Wide lips with more surface area displace much more water and dive much deeper. Assuming we have adequate surface area, the next factor to consider is the lip's shape. Rectangular lips basically displace the water equally to both sides and the lure will dive and retrieve straight (assuming it is tuned properly) without much wiggle. Unfortunately, when it hits an obstacle, it will "bounce" back and disrupt the lure's natural appearance. Use these in deep diving lures that aren't likely to hit many obstacles. Round lures displace water equally to both sides, but they displace different amounts of water at different points on the curve. The end of the round lip has very little surface area and doesn't move much water and the middle of the lip is much wider and displaces much more water. This means that the lure will not dive as deep, but will have a wider and slower wiggle. Round lips are also excellent at gliding off of obstacles resulting in less disruption during your retrieve. Triangular lips also do a great job of naturally deflecting off cover without sacrificing much depth. When they hit an obstacle, they typically just tilt and glide past it.
Lip Angle - Lips that are connected at a 0 degree diving angle (e.g. they come straight out forward from the nose) dive deepest and have the tightest wiggle. Lips that are connected at a 90 degree diving angle run shallow and have an exaggerated wiggle. Lips that are connected in the middle of these two positions will have medium wiggle and medium diving depth.
Lip Material - Most lips are either aluminum, lexan, or stainless steel. Each material has its own pro's and con's. Aluminum and stainless steel lips are durable, add flash, produce stronger ultrasonic vibrations, and are easier to "tune" by hand. Unfortunately, they also extend the crankbait's profile which is can negatively affect the lure's appeal. Lexan lips are clear and do not affect the bait's profile, but they cannot be tuned without the assistance of a heat source and they do not emit strong ultrasonic vibrations. Overall, the lexan lip's clear profile makes it the preferred lip of many tackle makers.
Line Tie Position - The position of the line tie can seriously affect a crankbait's action and diving depth. The position of the line tie determines the lip's "positive diving surface". The "positive diving surface" is the area of the lip that is between the line tie and the tip of the lip. The "negative diving surface" is the area of the lip that is between the line tie and the body of the lure. The greater the positive diving surface, the deeper the bait will dive and the tighter the wiggle. A line tie placed exactly where the lip meets the body will have virtually no wiggle and will run deeper. A line tie placed at the tip of the lip will have a wider wiggle and will not run as deep.
Hook Position - The position of the hooks will affect the crankbait's body position, hookup ratio, balance, and ability to run true. Remember, your hook positions will alter the center of gravity by adding weight to specific portions of the lure. Your crankbait will behave differently depending on where you position this weight. As a general rule, all hooks should be positioned in-line with your line tie and should be centered on the bottom or back of the lure. The effect of the hook's weight on the lure increases as the distance between it and the line tie increases, meaning that hooks at the rear of the bait will have a greater effect on the lure's action that hooks at the front. Hooks that are not attached in-line with the line tie will not run true.
Hook Size - The hook size you select for your crankbaits affects the lure's ability to remain upright and catch fish. On a crankbait, the hooks act as a type of rudder by adding downward stability to the lure. When compared to the overall size of the lure, large hooks offer more stability than small hooks. However, if the hook is too large, it will negatively affect the lure's action by acting as a heavy anchor. The only real way to tell what size hook you need for a crankbait is to experiment. Keep adding different sized hooks until you find one large enough to provide stability and hook fish, but small enough to minimize the anchoring effect. (On a personal note, I prefer using a large tail hook as this offsets the wide wiggle of a forward placed line tie and allows me to maximize diving depth without sacrificing action.)
Finish/Paint - Without getting into the actual appearance of the lure, there are some things that lure makers must consider when finishing their lures. Most importantly, lure makers should use a paint that is water resistant and flexible enough to withstand strong strikes and continuous lure vibrations. Contrary to popular belief, most of the paints available in hardware stores and hobby shops today do not match this description. Although they will work for a while, they will not withstand the stress of continuous use and hard toothy bites. Your best bet is to use vinyl paints designed specifically for the fishing tackle industry. They are extremely flexible and are engineered to withstand repetitive-use fishing conditions (and they usually come in better lure colors!).
There are two schools of thought when it comes to selling crankbaits (and any fishing product for that matter). The first one says, "If you build it to catch fish, it will eventually catch fishermen." The second one has the opposite view and says, "If you build it to catch fishermen, it will eventually catch fish." Companies who subscribe to the first opinion take longer to attract customers, but typically stay in business longer once their lures gain popularity (i.e. Heddon, Rapala, etc.). Companies who subscribe to the second opinion tend to make more money in the short term, but run out of steam quickly (i.e. "The Walking Worm"). My personal opinion is that all lures should be designed to catch BOTH the angler and the fish. If you neglect either of these aspects, your lure won't get very far beyond your immediate circle of customers. Assuming you've designed a lure that catches fish, here are a few tips to help you catch the fishermen.
Finish First! - Fish don't buy lures...fishermen do! And the main thing that fishermen look for in a bait is the finish. It's got to have a flawless and unique paint job that rivals the Mona Lisa. The most popular crankbait colors are, in order of popularity: yellow chartreuse, green chartreuse, blaze orange, black, hot pink, flame red, white pearl, bright green, hot yellow, red, purple, brown, and blue. This doesn't mean that all of your lures should be yellow chartreuse. Instead, you should combine these colors to produce a natural or unique color pattern on your lure. Color fades, scale patterns, tiger stripes, gills, eyes, light bellies, and belly spots also increase sales.
Shape Up or Ship Out! - Almost equally as important as finish is body design. Anglers like to have a full arsenal of lure shapes to choose from when they're out on the water. True tackle addicts will evaluate all of the aspects of a lure before making a purchase decision, but most anglers just purchased lures because "they look cool". If your lure looks interesting, they'll buy it. Always remember to include instructions with your lure if you have a unique body design. Angler's will usually NOT purchase unique body designs that do not include instructions.
Packaging - When packaging your crankbaits, be sure to include information on diving depths and target species. Some anglers rely on this information to make their purchases.
Price - Unfortunately, there is not a lot of price elasticity in crankbaits, meaning you'll have a hard time selling them if you price yours out of the sweet spot. Quality crankbaits typically range between $3.50 and $5.50. Anything beyond that needs to have an incredibly unique design, reputation, or paint job to sell